A polyether polyol (i) and a polyester polyol (ii). This char can decompose further, leaving behind a residue at >800 °C, to produce simple organic fragments and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Supplier Identification: Carlisle Spray Foam Insulation . Privacy In their raw forms, these can cause respiratory and skin damage. An FED equal to one indicates that the sum of concentrations of individual species will be lethal to 50 % of the population over a 30 min exposure. Toxic product yields from materials involved in fires depend on a number of factors. Fire and Materials 16:p37–43, Barbrauskas V, Harris RH, Gann RG, Levin BC, Lee BT, Peakcock RD, Paabo M, Twilley W, Yoklavich MF, Clark HM (1988) Fire hazard comparison of fire-retarded and non-fire-retarded products, Special Publication 749. For the range of materials investigated, the authors also noted that those containing fire retardants (including the CMHR-PUF and PIR) resulted in a higher recovery fraction of fuel N as HCN. The results showed a HCN yield of 15.8 mg g−1 at 600 °C. (2015) questioned their methodology and noted that the authors did not address the release of HCl and its contribution to the acute fire toxicity of the fire retarded foam. Global usage is expected to expand from 13.65 Mt in 2010 to 17.95 Mt by 2016. Rigid foam decomposed between 200 and 410 °C, while flexible foam decomposed between 150 to 500 °C. Some methods have proved incapable of properly replicating the most toxic under-ventilated fire condition, where the yields of carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide are greatest, while other methods have shown good correlation with large scale test data. For both materials there is a clear increase in yield from the well-ventilated to under-ventilated conditions. Polyurethane foam: This is the most common type of foam used in mattresses and is derived from petroleum. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, pp 54–82, Guo X, Wanga L, Zhanga L, Lia S, Hao J (2014) Nitrogenous emissions from the catalytic pyrolysis of waste rigid polyurethane foam. However, while the char produced when the polymer was heated at 370 °C contained only 20 % of the total nitrogen from the polymer, 40 % of that (8 % of the total nitrogen in the polymer) was recovered as HCN when the char was burned at 600 °C. The authors noted that in both the flaming and non-flaming combustion of the polyurethane foam, the concentrations of toxicants did not reach high enough concentrations to predict deaths. The average CO yield expected from under-ventilated flaming is ~200 mg g−1 for polyurethane materials. This resulted in the reported HCN yields for the under-ventilated conditions being lower than expected in all of the tests. The conditions specified are: 25 kW m−2 without piloted ignition; 25 kW m−2 with piloted ignition; 50 kW m−2 without piloted ignition; and 50 kW m−2 with piloted ignition. 1982), the authors exposed male Fisher 344 rats in a 200 L exposure chamber to the fire effluent from the flaming and non-flaming combustion of both materials. Combustion and Flame 146(1–2):p95–108, Rogaume T, Bustamante-Valencia L, Guillaume E, Richard F, Luche J, Rein G, Torero JL (2011) Development of the Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of Polyether Polyurethane Foam Using Both Condensed and Gas-Phase Release Data. Using the methodology in ISO 13344, the authors also calculated the fractional effective dose (FED) of the individual toxicants sampled. The strain of two electronegative atoms (N and O) results in electron density being pulled away from the carbon atom, giving it a strong partial positive charge. Toxicity occurs only during manufacture and curing. PML 1998-A97. Non-fatal UK fire injuries requiring hospital treatment, 1955-2013 (UK Fire Statistics 2013). However, a non-standard modification of the apparatus has been described, enclosing the fire model in a controlled ventilation chamber, in an attempt to replicate oxygen-depleted conditions. The authors noted that the yields of CO during the well-ventilated testing were higher than expected for both materials, and attributed this to the possible presence of gas phase free radical quenchers, such as halogens or phosphorous containing flame retardants, which would reduce the conversion of CO to CO2 (Schnipper & Smith-Hansen 1995). The isocyanate precursors used in the production of polyurethane foams usually consist of aromatic diisocyanates such as toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). volume 5, Article number: 3 (2016) Its widespread availability has encouraged its adaptation to toxic gas generation and assessment. The radiant heat flux in the ISO/TS 19700 apparatus has been measured (Stec et al. Carbodiimides are produced by the reaction of isocyanates in the presence of a catalyst (such as phospholine oxides) (Scheme 8) (Avar et al. In this modification, the controlled atmosphere cone calorimeter (CACC) (Babrauskas et al. During these tests, the PIR was set up as wall panels covered on two faces with aluminium foil. Andersson B, Markert F, Holmstedt G (2005) Combustion products generated by hetero-organic fuels on four different fire test scales. Polymer Degradation and Stability 93:p2058–2065, Tewarson A (2002) SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, 3rd ed. Only the SSTF has a heated reaction zone which replicates the hot layer. The authors noted that the yields of the toxicants produced an atmosphere in the tests which fell well below their Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) values. Intermediate between these two approaches are those that can produce quasi-steady combustion conditions, such as the cone calorimeter (ISO 5660–1 2002) with non-standardised controlled atmosphere attachment (CACC), and the fire propagation apparatus (FPA) (ISO 12136 2011). (2014) on the catalytic decomposition of rigid polyurethane foam waste showed that ammonia, hydrogen cyanide and both nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide were produced at temperatures up to 1100 °C. Aromatic diisocyanates ortho- or para- to one another will have an activating effect on each other, thus increasing their reactivity. However, there is very little literature available regarding the yields of isocyanates produced by the combustion of polyurethane foams. The incapacitating C∙t product corresponds to CO at a dose of 35 000 μL L−1min (approximately equal to ppm min), predicting incapacitation at around 1200 ppm for 30 min exposure, and an exponential relationship for HCN (because asphyxiation by HCN exposure does not fit a linear relationship), predicting incapacitation at around 82 ppm for 30 min exposure. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. More recent studies have supported and expanded upon the aforementioned thermal decomposition mechanisms of polyurethane foams. Ureas and urethanes decompose between 160 and 200 °C. ISO 5659–2 (2012) Plastics - Smoke generation - Part 2: Determination of optical density by a single-chamber test, ISO 5660–1 (2002) Fire tests – Reaction to fire – Part 1: Rate of heat release from building products (cone calorimeter method), ISO 9705 (1993) Fire tests – Full-scale room tests for surface products, Kaplan HL (1987b) Effects of irritant gases on avoidance/escape performance and respiratory response of the baboon. Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are non-flammable gases present in fire effluents. Fire gases contain a mixture of fully oxidised products, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), partially oxidised products, such as carbon monoxide (CO) and aldehydes, fuel and fuel degradation products, such as aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons, and other stable gas molecules, such as hydrogen halides (HCl, HBr) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) (Kaplan et al. 1992), shown in Fig. Although these temperatures can provide a good general idea of which bonds will be likely to break down with heating, the steric and electronic effects of the attached groups can affect the strength of the bonds and thus the temperature at which the bond will decompose. The smoke density chamber (ISO 5659-2) showing a sampling probe for fire smoke toxicity. A summary of the bond decomposition temperatures in polyurethanes is shown in Table 2 (Gharehbagh & Ahmadi 2012). Work by Guo et al. In a series of investigations, Purser and Purser (2008a) examined the yields of HCN from a range of materials and the conversion of fuel nitrogen to HCN. I just learned that polyurethane is toxic to pets. The yield of CO had a wide range during the under-ventilated tests due to inconsistent flaming of the sample with yields from 100–250 mg g−1. Product Name: POLYURETHANE FOAM A-COMPONENT . Depending on the material, the carbon dioxide in the foam will deteriorate in place or be released out of the material. It is not intended to be a critical evaluation of the various test methods or procedures used or the data obtained using these methodologies. Is - Answered by a verified Dog Veterinarian. hbspt.cta._relativeUrls=true;hbspt.cta.load(3848240, 'a8b1233e-21a8-4b87-b767-9e57097dc60c', {}); © 2018 Mearthane Products Corporate Terms & Conditions / Privacy Policy, Polyurethanes organic compounds are produced by the reaction of two main chemicals; polyols and isocyanates. A more recent assessment by Marsh and Gann (2013) tested a flexible polyurethane foam with a cotton polyester cover in a range of test methods including the radiant heat apparatus (NFPA 269 2012), the ISO 5659–2 (2012) smoke density chamber, a controlled atmosphere cone calorimeter (ASTM E 1354) and the steady state tube furnace (ISO/TS 19700 2013). Results obtained using different test methods of 50 L min−1 to toxic gas generation and assessment 1 ) such... An inert atmosphere and decompose between 270 and 300 °C, while flexible foam ~175... Of HCN are produced stability to polyisocyanurates ( Scheme 1 ) assertion based this. Than their polyester based polyurethane began to decompose at > 800 °C to produce dimers, trimers completely! Contributions generates a fractional effective concentration ( FEC ) of the polyurethane foam post we! Other of these experiments and the average yield of amines and water the! 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