Folk India: A Comprehensive Study of Indian Folk Music and Culture, Vol. Tamil cuisine includes vegetarian and non-vegetarian food. [154] Tamil Jains now number only a few thousand. Meanwhile, his lieutenant Vira Pandya defeated the king of Lanka and obtained the submission of the island nation. It was a self-sacrifice of a warrior to the goddess of war for the victory of his commander. "Peopling of India." The people of Tamil Nadu play traditional sports and sports from other countries. [176] A remarkable feature, besides their willingness to sacrifice, is that they were well organized and disciplined. [159] Kan̲n̲agi, the heroine of the Cilappatikār̲am, is worshipped as Pattin̲i by many Tamils, particularly in Sri Lanka. As of 2018[update] Tamils made up 25% of the population of Sri Lanka. de Leeuw & Ubaghs, J.M.M. MUMBAI TAMIL SANGHAM has won accolades from one and all for its various cultural and educational activities.They include-Lingual integration : conducting of Marathi classes for Non Maharastrians Tamil classes for others including Tamilians who do not know to read and write Tamil. Mumbai, Pune population density major challenge: Govt . [209] Films from Kollywood entertain audiences not only in India but also overseas Tamil diaspora. [38] Early iconography of Seyyon[135] and Sivan[136][137][138] and their association with native flora and fauna goes back to the Indus Valley Civilization. [44], The classical period ended around the 4th century CE with invasions by the Kalabhra, referred to as the kalappirar in Tamil literature and inscriptions. [206] Tamil Nadu also has a well developed stage theatre tradition, which has been influenced by western theatre. [106][107][108][109][110][111] Irrespective of the ethnic differences, the British imposed a unitary state structure in British Ceylon for better administration. [42] Potsherds with Tamil writing have also been found in excavations on the Red Sea, suggesting the presence of Tamil merchants there. [103][104][105] The Hindu migration and assimilation continued until the 18th century.[103]. [71] He also defeated two Pandya princes one of whom was Maravarman Sundara Pandya II and briefly made the Pandyas submit to the Chola overlordship. [126] Today, the largest concentration of Sri Lankan Tamils outside Sri Lanka can be found in Toronto. Several Tamil actresses such as Anuisa Ranjan Vyjayanthimala, Hema Malini, Rekha Ganesan, Sridevi, Meenakshi Sheshadri, and Vidya Balan have acted in Bollywood and dominated the cinema over the years. Notes on prehistoric and early iron in the Old World. 🛈Today's Message: For the strength of the Pack is the Wolf, & the strength of the Wolf is the Pack. Mumbai is a principal city in India and the center of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the sixth more populated metropolitan area in the world with over 20 million people. The Tamil country is strategically located in the Indian Ocean and had access to a sea trade route. [113] After the British colonial rule in Sri Lanka ended, ethnic tension between the Sinhalese and the Sri Lankan Tamils rose. While Adiperukku is celebrated with more pomp in the Cauvery region than in others, the Ayyavazhi Festival, Ayya Vaikunda Avataram, is predominantly celebrated in the southern districts of Kanyakumari District, Tirunelveli, and Thoothukudi.[166]. [61], Under Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola, the Cholas became dominant in the 10th century and established an empire covering most of South India and Sri Lanka. The burning of Jaffna library in 1981 and Black July in 1983 finally led to over 25 years of war between the Sri Lankan army and the Tamil Tigers, in which both sides committed numerous atrocities. [75] This socio-culturally transformation was altered through Sanskrit-speaking Indo-Aryan migration from Northern India in the 8th century. [49] Later, they are mentioned in the Mauryan Empire's Pillars of Ashoka (inscribed 273–232 BCE) inscriptions, among the kingdoms, which though not subject to Ashoka, were on friendly and allied terms with him. [45][47][48], Megalithic sarcophagus burial from Tamil Nadu, Virampatnam jewelry from funerary burial, 2nd century BCE, Tamil Nadu, Souttoukeny jewelry, 2nd century BCE Tamil Nadu, Map of ancient oceanic trade, and ports of Tamilakam. The latter half of the 11th century saw the union of Chola and Vengi kingdoms under Kulottunga I. The Sangam legends also alluded to the antiquity of the Tamil people by claiming tens of thousands of years of continuous literary activity during three Sangams. A South Indian Journey: The Smile of Murugan, Michael Wood (2002), p. 76. [37] The Tamil kings and chiefs were always in conflict with each other, mostly over territorial hegemony and property. Chola bronzes, especially the Nataraja sculptures of the Chola period, have become notable symbols of Hinduism. In 1956 the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka passed the Sinhala Only Act, an act where Sinhala replaced English as the only official language of Sri Lanka. In M.M. Compared to D Company and Rajan, they were smaller. With Chennai's Marina Beach as the nerve-centre, protests are going across the country and pockets with Tamil population in the world against the ban. Both are celebrated by almost all Tamils, regardless of religion. Similarly, the Tamil speaking parts of Sri Lanka joined with the other regions of the island in 1802 to form the Ceylon colony. Dishes such as dosa, idli, and vadai are served with sambar, chutney or in Sri Lanka with coconut sambal. Tamil theatre has a long and varied history whose origins can be traced back almost two millennia to dance-theatre forms like Kotukotti and Pandarangam, which are mentioned in an ancient anthology of poems entitled the Kalingathu Parani. [141] This represents an early religious and cultural fusion[142][note 3] or synthesis[144] between ancient Dravidians and Indo-Aryans, which became more evident over time with sacred iconography, flora and fauna that went on to influence Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Throughout the 15th and 16th century the Vijayanagara Empire was the dominant power of South India and sponsored many Tamil literary works. Tamils account for at least one-sixth of the population in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Most traditional art is religious in some form and usually centres on Hinduism, although the religious element is often only a means to represent universal—and, occasionally, humanist—themes. Other Tamil communities, such as those in South Africa, Fiji, Mauritius, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, Jamaica, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Pakistan, Martinique, and the Caribbean no longer speak Tamil language as a first language, but still retain a strong Tamil identity, and are able to understand the language, while most elders speak it as a first language. Tamil films from Chennai have been distributed to various overseas theatres in Singapore, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Malaysia, Japan, Oceania, the Middle East, Western Europe, and North America. The Aryachakaravarthi dynasty continued to rule over large parts of northeast Sri Lanka until the Portuguese conquest of the Jaffna Kingdom in 1619. p. 380, Herbert Henery Coghlan. They carried a suicide pill around their neck to escape captivity and torture. [187][188][189][190] The Arabs introduced the South Indian/Sri Lankan wootz steel to Damascus, where an industry developed for making weapons of this steel. [102], The caste structure of the majority Sinhalese has also accommodated Hindu immigrants from South India since the 13th century CE. [150] In the Sangam literature, there is an elaborate description of the rites performed by the Kurava priestess in the shrine Palamutircholai. [201] Contemporary dance forms such as Bharatanatyam have recent origins but are based on older temple dance forms known as Catir Kacceri as practised by courtesans and a class of women known as Devadasis. [26] In Amaravati in present-day Andhra Pradesh there is an inscription referring to a Dhamila-vaniya (Tamil trader) datable to the 3rd century AD. [101] Upon the arrival of European powers from the 17th century, the Tamils' separate nation was described[by whom?] Karpudayar mosque in Kayalpatnam, Old Jumma mosque in Kilakarai and Kazimar Big Mosque in Madurai are among the oldest mosques of Tamil Muslims in Tamil Nadu. [84], Early South Indian type black and red ware potsherds found in Sri Lanka, indicate that both region were bound by similar culture and identity. Ceylon remained in political union with India until India's independence in 1947; it gained independence the following year, as Sri Lanka, with both Sinhalese and Tamil populations. The land was supposed to have been destroyed by a deluge. Tamil Eelam is a proposed independent state that Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora aspire to establish in the north and east of Sri Lanka. [26] Another inscription of about the same time in Nagarjunakonda seems to refer to a Damila. The Samavayanga Sutra dated to the early 3rd century BC contains a reference to a Tamil script named 'Damili'. South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia : Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka(2003), p. 386. He led successful expeditions to the north as attested by his epigraphs found as far as Cuddappah. Due to independent lineage,[8][9][10] they are listed[8][10][11] as Moors by the Sri Lankan government. [114] The Sri Lankan Tamils saw the act as linguistic, cultural and economic discrimination against them. Dharavi has an area of over 2.1 square kilometres and a population of about 10,00,000, making it a densely populated area. , a group of treatises on ethics, politics, love and morality widely considered the greatest work of Tamil literature. According to Iraiyanar Agapporul, a 10th/11th century annotation on the Sangam literature, the Tamil country extended southwards beyond the natural boundaries of the Indian peninsula comprising 49 ancient nadus (divisions). Significant populations reside in Karnataka (2.9 million), Maharashtra (1.4 million), Andhra Pradesh (1.2 million), Kerala (0.6 million) and the National Capital Region (0.1 million). [167] Their worship often centres around nadukkal, stones erected in memory of heroes who died in battle. Avipalli was mentioned in all the works except Veera Soliyam. [133] Tamil literature is of considerable antiquity, and is recognised as a classical language by the government of India. The forms of martial suicide were known as Avipalli, Thannai, Verttal, Marakkanchi, Vatakkiruttal and Punkilithu Mudiyum Maram. [78] According to another theory, cultural diffusion well before Sinhalese arrival in Sri Lanka led to Tamil replacing a previous language of an indigenous Mesolithic population that became the Sri Lankan Tamils. Hobson-Jobson: The Definitive Glossary of British India, Henry Yule, A.C. Burnell, Kate Teltscher (2013), p. 442. Amit Shah to visit Tamil Nadu on Jan 14 as BJP plans grand Pongal; Home; Cities; Mumbai ; Tiger RT1 to travel over 800 km from Gorewada zoo in Nagpur to SGNP; Tiger RT1 to travel over 800 km from Gorewada zoo in Nagpur to SGNP The SGNP is, at present, home to six Royal Bengal tigers, including five … During the period of Rajaraja III, the Hoysalas sided with the Cholas and defeated the Kadava chieftain Kopperunjinga and the Pandyas and established a presence in the Tamil country. Here you can check the world Tamil population with the percentage. [70] The Hoysalas played a divisive role in the politics of the Tamil country during this period. Chennai has an estimated population of 4.9 million people, which ranks 6th in India. All these sects have improvised Tamil vocabulary with peculiar loan words due to miscegenation. City Size and Population Density. It is one of the most populated urban areas on the planet and the second most stuffed metropolitan zone in the nation, with a population of 20.7 million as indicated by 2011. Parpola, Asko (1974). List of territorial entities where Tamil is an official language, "Where Are India's 2011 Census Figures on Religion? Amman, Mariamman, Durgai, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Kali and Saptakanniyar are venerated in all their glorious forms. [202] Although the Pallava records can be traced from the 2nd century CE, they did not rise to prominence as an imperial dynasty until the 6th century. War was regarded as an honorable sacrifice and fallen heroes and kings were worshiped in the form of a hero stone. Puducherry is a subnational enclave situated within Tamil Nadu. [157][158] In Tamil tradition, Murugan is the youngest and Pillaiyar the oldest son of Sivan and Parvati. It's not a translation but tells the story in a different perspective. Tamil Nadu has some notable players in each sport. [30], Possible evidence indicating the earliest presence of Tamil people in modern-day Tamil Nadu are the megalithic urn burials, dating from around 1500 BCE and onwards, which have been discovered at various locations in Tamil Nadu, notably in Adichanallur in Thoothukudi District[31][32][33] which conform to the descriptions of funerals in classical Tamil literature. Many Malaysian children attend Tamil schools, and a significant portion of Tamil children are brought up with Tamil as their first language. [178] Another sign of its reputation is seen in a Persian phrase – to give an "Indian answer", meaning "a cut with an Indian sword". It is unknown whether the term Tamiḻar and its equivalents in Prakrit such as Damela, Dameda, Dhamila and Damila was a self designation or a term denoted by outsiders. Kerala Iyers or Bhattars, are Tamil Brahmins of the Indian state of Kerala — people who were residents in the Kerala region, and also people who migrated from present day Tamil Nadu in different waves from the time of the Chera dynasty.They are Hindus. Mumbai is the capital city of Maharashtra. [160] There are also many followers of Ayyavazhi in Tamil Nadu, mainly in the southern districts. BJP is the only party to have a Tamil MLA in Maharashtra Assembly in Captain R Tamil Selvan. in their areas of habitation in the northeast of the island. [208] The modern Tamil film industry originated during the 20th century. Lghtner Publishing Company (1963), Sharma, Manorama (2004). [173] Since the early Sangam age, there was a warlike culture in South India. This consists of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the second … This form of worship is mentioned frequently in classical literature and appears to be the surviving remnants of an ancient Tamil tradition. The metro area population of Mumbai in 2020 was 20,411,000, a 1.12% increase from 2019. British colonists consolidated the Tamil territory in southern India into the Madras Presidency, which was integrated into British India. [163] It was customary for people who sought victory in war to worship these hero stones to bless them with victory. In 2004, Tamil was the first of six to be designated as a classical language of India. [citation needed], There are significant Tamil communities in other parts of India. There were trade relationship between the Roman Empire and Pandyan Empire. [86] Potsherds with early Tamil writing from the 2nd century BCE have been found in excavations in north of the Sri Lanka in Poonagari, bearing several inscriptions including a clan name – vela, a name related to velir from ancient Tamil country. [122] By the 1990s, most Indian Tamils had received Sri Lankan citizenship. In the Sri Lankan highlands the lands of the Sinhalese were seized by the British and Indian Tamils were settled there as plantation workers. Tamils are the majority in the union territory of Puducherry, a former French colony. Most of these have emerged fairly recently, dating to the colonial and post-colonial periods, but some date back to the medieval period. American Ceylon Mission Press, Tellippalai Ceylon 1918, Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: Sasay to Zorgot by Mohan Lal p. 4283, Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa: Reflections on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia by Hermann Kulke, K Kesavapany, Vijay Sakhuja p. 79, The Emporium of the World: Maritime Quanzhou, 1000–1400 by Angela Schottenhammer p. 293, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSteever1998 (, Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: Sasay to Zorgot by Mohan Lal p. 4284, The cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia By Edward Balfour. ), This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 22:35. [152] The majority of Muslims in Tamil Nadu speak Tamil,[153] with less than 15% of them reporting Urdu as their mother tongue. It was accentuated by the resurgence of Pandyas under Maravarman Sundara Pandya (1216-1238 CE)[62] The waning Chola fortunes resulted in a three-way fight for the Tamil regions between the Pandyas, the Hoysalas and the Kakatiyas. [168] Munis are a group of guardian gods, who are worshiped by Tamils. [118] There also exists a significant Muslim population in Sri Lanka who are speakers of the Tamil language. Union health secretary Rajesh Bhushan said there has been a sustained decline in COVID-19 cases in India since mid-September. He then defeated Kopperunjinga, the Kadava chieftain, and turned him into a vassal. [127][128][129][130], Tamils have strong attachment to the Tamil language, which is often venerated in literature as Tamil̲an̲n̲ai, "the Tamil mother". These Sangam poems paint the picture of a fertile land and of a people who were organised into various occupational groups. [205] The performances are not formal, and performers often interact with the audience, mocking them, or involving them in the dialogue. pp 99–100, Hilda Ellis Davidson. [38] Sivan was also seen as the supreme God. One of the Tamil folk dances is karakattam. A number of theatrical companies exist, with repertoires including absurdist, realist, and humorous plays.[207]. The classical Tamil literature, referred to as Sangam literature, is attributed to the period between 300 BCE and 300 CE. Tamils account for at least one-sixth of the population in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tamils are the majority in the union territory of Puducherry, a former French colony. Among the ancient Tamils the practice of erecting memorial stones (natukal) had appeared, and it continued for quite a long time after the Sangam age, down to about the 16th century. The Tamil cuisine in Sri Lanka differs little from that of South India. A major part of Tamil performing arts is its classical form of dance, the Bharatanatyam, whereas the popular forms are known as Koothu. [76], There is little scholarly consensus over the presence of Tamil people in Sri Lanka . [174] Heroic martyrdom was glorified in ancient Tamil literature. Other gods mentioned were Mayyon and Vaali who are major deities in Hinduism today. From Kollywood entertain audiences not only in India live in the light of archaeological, linguistic and religious evidence an... Ancient Tamil literature, referred to as Sangam literature, Delhi: Prakashan... Originated in South India. [ 133 ] Tamil Brahmi inscribed potsherds have also excavated! Has historically been, and asserted his independence signs of the majority in the globe played divisive. Cola and Pandya Brahmi inscribed potsherds have also been excavated in the Indian Ocean and had access to a area... By sizeable minorities. 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